The disease is caused by the Marburg virus, which belongs to the Filoviridae family, the same family as the Ebola virus. Outbreaks have been reported in several African countries, including Uganda, Zimbabwe, Congo, Kenya, Angola, and South Africa. Reservoir animals in the area include fruit bats and monkeys, which can transmit the virus to humans. Recently, an outbreak was reported in Equatorial Guinea in West Africa in February 2023.

Thailand classifies Marburg virus infection as one of the 13 dangerous communicable diseases under the Communicable Diseases Act, B.E. 2558 (2015). The Marburg virus is categorized in Risk Group 4 (high-risk pathogens).

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Symptoms of the Disease

The incubation period ranges from 2 to 21 days, with a mortality rate of 24-88%. Initial symptoms include:

  • High fever
  • Fatigue
  • Chills
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache

Severe Symptoms (observed on days 5-10)

  • Rash on the neck, back, and abdomen
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea
  • Hemorrhaging throughout the body
  • Organ failure

Transmission of the Disease

Animal-to-Human Transmission

  • Bat feces
  • Contact with bodily fluids

Human-to-Human Transmission

  • Contact with blood, bodily fluids, and tissues from infected individuals or deceased persons
  • Contact with contaminated objects
  • Virus entry through mucous membranes such as eyes, nose, mouth, and skin lesions


  • Detection of viral genetic material by RT-PCR
  • Detection of antigens by ELISA in blood, serum, or organ samples


There is no specific treatment. Severe cases require close monitoring and adequate fluid replacement.

Preventive Measures

There is no vaccine or specific treatment for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. Sexual activity should be avoided for 3 months post-illness or until the virus is no longer detected in semen.

Source of Information

  • High-Risk Pathogen Operations and Immunology Division Institute of Public Health Sciences Research
  • Department of Medical Sciences Infectious Disease Society of Thailand